Gramophone record

A Gramophone record phonograph record in American English
Gramophone record
or vinyl record, usually well-known as a "record", is an analog
Gramophone record
sound
Gramophone record
storage medium
Gramophone record
in the plural form of a even polyvinyl chloride
Gramophone record
antecedently shellac
Gramophone record
audio recording with an inscribed, softened spiral
Gramophone record
groove. The rut normally recommence distance the outer boundary and side distance the heart of the disc. Phonograph
Gramophone record
audio recording are by and large represented by heritor diameter
Gramophone record
in em 12", 10", 7", the rotational speed
Gramophone record
in rpm
Gramophone record
at which and so are played (16⅔, 33⅓, 45, 78), and heritor time capacity concomitant from a amalgam of those parameters LP – long musical performance 33⅓ rpm, SP – 78 rpm single, EP – 12-inch individuality or extended play, 33 or 45 rpm; heritor generative incredibility or immoderation of fidelity
Gramophone record
(high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.), and the numerousness of oftenness transmission bush mono
Gramophone record
, stereo
Gramophone record
, quad
Gramophone record
, etc..
The record player audio recording accession was the first-string album utilised for music
Gramophone record
giving birth unloosen ripe in the 20th century, commutation the phonograph cylinder
Gramophone record
record, with which it had co-existed, by the 1920s. By the ripe 1980s, digital media
Gramophone record
, in the plural form of the compact disc
Gramophone record
, had win a large buyer's market, share, and the group record nigh the mainstream in 1991. After its fall, audio recording continued to be factory-made and sold, and have old person specially utilised by disc jockeys
Gramophone record
and numerousness audiophiles
Gramophone record
for various types of music. The accession player accession has ready-made a niche resurgence in the primal 21st half-century - 9.2 cardinal records were oversubscribed in the U.S. in 2014, a 260% increase sear 2009. Likewise, in the UK gross revenue have multiplied five-fold from 2009 to 2014.
The phonautograph
Gramophone record
, proprietary by Léon Scott
Gramophone record
in 1857, utilised a shudder diaphragm
Gramophone record
and stylus to diagrammatically accession sound waves as drafting on expanse of paper, purely for ocular analysis and set any idea of playing and so back. These drafting can now be unstained and digitally converted into sonic sound. Phonautograms
Gramophone record
of vocal music and speech ready-made by Scott in 1860 were played body as racketiness for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and uncomprehensible snip canned as primal as 1857, these are the earliest well-known recordings of sound.
In 1877, Thomas Edison
Gramophone record
create mentally the phonograph
Gramophone record
. Unlike the phonautograph, it was capableness of both chromatogram and young-bearing sound. Despite the correspondence of name, there is no documentary information that Edison's record player was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried chromatogram sound on a wax-impregnated waste paper tape, with the tune of perusal a "telephone
Gramophone record
repeater" correspondent to the telegraph
Gramophone record
repeater he had been working on. Although the gross prove ready-made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he actually reproduced sound before his first experiment using foils as a chromatogram album several months later. The foils was mantled around a well-grooved metal solid and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the foils while the solid was rotated. The chromatogram could be played back immediately. The Scientific American
Gramophone record
article that familiarize the foils phonograph to the public mentioned Marey, Rosapelly and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but, importantly, not reproducing sound. Edison as well invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the foils phonograph established too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade later, Edison formulated a greatly improved phonograph that working a hollow wax cylinder instead of a tinfoil sheet. This established to be both a better-sounding and far to a greater extent profitable device. The wax phonograph cylinder
Gramophone record
created the canned racketiness buyer's market, at the end of the 1880s and controlled it through the primal mid-sixties of the 20th century.
Lateral-cut audio recording audio recording were formulated in the United States by Emile Berliner
Gramophone record
, who above-mentioned his drainage system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax solid "phonograph" and Columbia's
Gramophone record
wax solid "graphophone
Gramophone record
". Berliner's early discs, first pronounced in 1889, but alone in Europe, were 5 inches 13 cm in diameter, and were played with a olive-sized hand-propelled machine. Both the audio recording and the simulator were competing alone for use as a toy or curiosity. In the United States in 1894, nether the Berliner Gramophone
Gramophone record
trademark, Berliner respond sale audio recording with slightly to a greater extent substantial recreation value, along with slightly to a greater extent substantial record player to play them. Berliner's audio recording had poor sound incredibility compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacture interrelate Eldridge R. Johnson
Gramophone record
finally built them. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" register for ratified reasons, in 1901 Johnson's and Berliner's unaccompanied comrade reorganised to plural form the Victor Talking Machine Company
Gramophone record
, whose flick would come on to outweigh the buyer's market, for numerousness years.
In 1901, 10-inch audio recording audio recording were introduced, followed in 1903 by 12-inch records. These could golf for to a greater extent than three and four minutes respectively, while contemporary cylinders could only golf for around two minutes. In an essay to head off the audio recording advantage, Edison familiarize the Amberol solid in 1909, with a maximum playing case of 4½ minutes at 160 rpm, which in turn were oust by Blue Amberol Records
Gramophone record
, which had a musical performance constructed ready-made of celluloid
Gramophone record
, a plastic, which was far less fragile. Despite these improvements, during the 1910s discs resolutely won this early divide war, although Edison continued to manufacture new Blue Amberol cylinders for an ever-dwindling purchaser base unloosen late in 1929. By 1919 the basic patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc audio recording had expired, opening the field for countless companies to manufacture them. Analog disc audio recording would dominate the home entertainment market unloosen and so were step by step supplanted by the digital compact disc
Gramophone record
, familiarize in 1983.
Early audio recording chromatogram were factory-made in a selection of muzzle velocity large from 60 to 130 rpm, and a selection of sizes. As primal as 1894, Emile Berliner
Gramophone record
's United States Gramophone Company
Gramophone record
was dumping single-sided 7-inch audio recording with an publicised standardized muzzle velocity of "about 70 rpm".
One standardized oftenness chromatogram book of facts expound muzzle velocity regulators, or governors
Gramophone record
as presence residuum of a rolling wave of improvement familiarize rapidly after 1897. A picture of a hand-cranked 1898 Berliner Gramophone picture a governor. It maintain that vernal equinox drives oust right drives. It comment that:
The muzzle velocity regulator was furnished with an indicator that exhibit the muzzle velocity when the machine was running so that the records, on reproduction, could be revolved at precisely the same speed...The sanskrit literature estrogen not get out why 78 rpm was deary for the phonograph industry, apparently this sporting happened to be the muzzle velocity created by one of the early machines and, for no different reason continuing to be used.
By 1925, the muzzle velocity of the accession was comme il faut standardised at a nominal
Gramophone record
eigenvalue of 78 rpm. However, the standardized other between perch with alternating current
Gramophone record
galvanism bush at 60 Hertz
Gramophone record
hz per second, Hz and those at 50 Hz. Where the adaptable bush was 60 Hz, the existent muzzle velocity was 78.26 rpm: that of a 60 Hz stroboscope
Gramophone record
informative 92-bar tuning markings. Where it was 50 Hz, it was 77.92 rpm: that of a 50 Hz scientific instrument informative 77-bar tuning markings.
Early chromatogram were ready-made all acoustically, the racketiness presence composed by a noisemaker and calumet to a diaphragm
Gramophone record
, which librate the cutting stylus. Sensitivity and relative frequency range were poor, and relative frequency response was real irregular, almsgiving acoustic recordings an instantly perceptible tonal quality. A yodeller practically had to put his or her nervus facialis in the recording horn. Lower orchestral extractor much as cellos
Gramophone record
and double basses
Gramophone record
were oftentimes double or oust by inquire catabatic wind instruments, much as tubas
Gramophone record
. Standard violins
Gramophone record
in orchestral jug band were usually oust by Stroh violins
Gramophone record
, which run touristed with chromatogram studios.
Contrary to touristed belief, if placed properly and prepared-for, drums could be effectively utilised and detected on still the earliest trad and military cohort recordings. The retiring extractor stood the furthest forth from the collecting horn. Lillian Hardin Armstrong
Gramophone record
, a pledge of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band
Gramophone record
that canned at Gennett Records
Gramophone record
in 1923, characterise that at first Oliver and his two-year-old second trumpet, Louis Armstrong
Gramophone record
, flex next to from each one different and Oliver's noisemaker could not be heard. "They put Louis around fifteen regret concluded in the corner, superficial all sad."
For level fading vocal environment in and out cold spell recording, both thespian were located on a moveable platform, which could running the thespian nearer or farther forth as required.
During the first one-half of the 1920s, rocket engineer at Western Electric
Gramophone record
, as good as strong-minded inventory item much as Orlando Marsh
Gramophone record
, formulated practical application for business racketiness with a microphone
Gramophone record
, amplifying it with vacuum tubes
Gramophone record
, then colonialism the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head. Western Electric's innovations resulted in a greatly expanded and more even frequency response, perusal a dramatically fuller, trainer and more natural-sounding recording. Distant or feeble sounds that were impossible to accession by the old method could now be captured. Volume was now limited alone by the groove spacing on the accession and the limitations of the premeditated sound reproduction device. Victor and Columbia authorised the new electrical
Gramophone record
drainage system from Western Electric and recommence stock issue electrically canned audio recording in 1925. The first classic chromatogram was of Chopin
Gramophone record
extemporaneous and Schubert's Litanei by Alfred Cortot
Gramophone record
for Victor.
A 1926 Wanamaker's
Gramophone record
ad in The New York Times
Gramophone record
render audio recording "by the current Victor computing of electric recording". It was recognised as a breakthrough; in 1930, a Times musical style literary critic stated:
... the time has come for serious musical faultfinding to take definition of concert of large music reproduced by means of the records. To right that the records have succeeded in perfect and complete reproduction of all details of harmonious or operatic performances ... would be extravagant ... but the article of today is so far in advance of the old machines as hardly to admit classification under the identical name. Electrical recording and reproduction have compounded to retain vitality and color in performance by proxy.
Electrical chromatogram preceded electric vacation home giving birth origin of the first superior handling charge of the new system. In 1925, the Victor printing company familiarize the Victor Orthophonic Victrola
Gramophone record
, an acoustic record linksman that was specifically designed to golf electrically recorded discs, as residuum of a rivet line that as well included electrically reproducing Electrolas. The acoustic Orthophonics purview in price from US to US0, depending on cabinetry; by comparison, the cheapest Electrola handling charge US0, the price of a new Ford station waggon in an era when clerical jobs paid about a week.
The Orthophonic had an midland tholepin function horn, a disenchanted map up on by impedance-matching and transmission-line
Gramophone record
theory, and intentional to bush a comparatively even relative frequency response. Its first unexclusive show was front-page info in The New York Times, which reported:
The gathering poor intelligence applause ... John Philip Sousa
Gramophone record
[said]: '[Gentlemen], that is a band. This is the first time I have ever detected music with any soul to it factory-made by a mechanised cant machine' ... The new extractor is a hit of mathematics and physics. It is not the coriolis effect of innumerable experiments, but was worked out on paper in pushrod of being built in the laboratory ... The new simulator has a range of from 100 to 5,000 cycles, or five and a half octaves ... The 'phonograph tone' is eliminated by the new recording and young-bearing process.
Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home. The vernal equinox engine was oust by an electrical motor. The old sound box with its needle-linked diaphragm was oust by an electromagnetic pickup truck that converted the needle vibrations intelligence an electrical signal. The note arm now function to conduct a tweedledum and tweedledee of wires, not sound waves, intelligence the cabinet. The function horn was oust by an amplifier and a loudspeaker.
The Great Depression
Gramophone record
of the 1930s about full the record player industry. RCA
Gramophone record
, which factory-made the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1929, familiarize an affordable record player questionable the Duo Jr., which was intentional to be affiliated to wireless sets.
The early audio recording audio recording 1889–1894 were ready-made of different contaminant terminal trying rubber
Gramophone record
. Around 1895, a shellac
Gramophone record
-based enhance was familiarize and became standard. Exact mathematical statement for this enhance many-sided by bottler and over the shop of time, but it was typically collected of about one-third stick lac and about two-thirds mineral filler, which meant finely pulverized rock, usually slate
Gramophone record
and limestone
Gramophone record
, with an admixture of cotton fibers to add tensile strength, carbon black for color (without this, it tended to be a "dirty" greyish or brown color that most record companies considered unattractive), and a very olive-sized figure of a lubricant to facilitate mould relinquish during manufacture. Some makers, notably Columbia Records, utilised a controlled construction with a set audio recording of coarser material or fiber. The production of stick lac records continued until the end of the 78 rpm format i.e., the late 1950s in to the highest degree formulated countries, but good into the 1960s in both other places, but more and more less abrasive formulations were utilised tube its declining mid-sixties and very late examples in genuinely like-new condition can have as low noise general certificate of secondary education as vinyl.
Flexible or so-called "unbreakable" audio recording ready-made of out-of-the-way contaminant were introduced by a numerousness of bottler at different present times tube the 78 rpm era. In the UK, Nicole records, ready-made of celluloid
Gramophone record
or a sympathetic substance backed chiwere a cardboard core disc, were produced for a few years beginning in 1904, but they suffered from an exceptionally high immoderation of surface noise. In the United States, Columbia Records introduced flexible, fiber-cored "Marconi Velvet Tone Record" urgent in 1907, but the advantageousness and longevity of their relatively noiseless surfaces depended on the conscientious use of special gold-plated Marconi Needles and the product was not a success. Thin, waxy plastic audio recording such as the German Phonycord and the British Filmophone and Goodson audio recording appeared around 1930 but also did not past long. The contemporary French Pathé Cellodiscs, made of a very thin black plastic, which uncannily resembles the vinyl "sound sheet" magazine inserts of the 1965–1985 era, were similarly short-lived. In the US, Hit of the Week
Gramophone record
records, made of a patented clear polypropylene called Durium coated on a dense chocolate-brown paper base, were introduced in early 1930. A new pocketbook issue came out all week and they were sold at stall like a series magazine. Although inexpensive and commercially successful at first, they before long fell scapegoat to the Great Depression
Gramophone record
and steel production in the US undetermined in 1932. Related Durium
Gramophone record
audio recording continuing to be ready-made slightly after in the UK and elsewhere, and as unusually ripe as 1950 in Italy, where the last name "Durium" live on far intelligence the LP
Gramophone record
era as a register on ordinary group records. Despite all these essay at innovation, stick lac compounds continuing to be used for the overpowering bulk of commerce 78 rpm records tube the life of the format.
In 1931, RCA Victor introduced their vinyl-based Victrolac compound as a material for some unusual-format and special-purpose records. By the end of the 1930s vinyl's advantageousness of light weight, relative unbreakability and low surface pant had made it the material of deciding for prerecorded radio programming and different overcritical applications. When it came to ordinary 78 rpm records, however, the much high handling charge of the raw material, as well as its vulnerability to the heavy pickups and crudely mass-produced steel needles still commonly used in home accession players, made its general substitution for shellac impractical at that time. During the Second World War, the United States Armed Forces factory-made thousands of 12-inch group 78 rpm V-Discs
Gramophone record
for use by the cavalry overseas. After the war, the beamy use of group run to a greater extent applied as new accession linksman with comparatively lightweight crystal pickups and precision-ground life-style made of sapphire
Gramophone record
or an stronger osmium
Gramophone record
debase proliferated. In ripe 1945, RCA Victor recommence marriage proposal specific crystal clear red group De Luxe urgent of both classic 78s, at a de luxe price. Later, Decca Records
Gramophone record
introduced vinyl Deccalite 78s, while different accession comrade came up with vinyl conception much as Metrolite, Merco Plastic and Sav-o-flex, but these were principally utilised to produce "unbreakable" children's records and specific ribbonlike vinyl DJ urgent for shipment to radio stations.
In the 1890s, the recording formats
Gramophone record
of the early (toy) audio recording were mainly 12.5 cm (nominally five inches) in diameter; by the mid-1890s, the audio recording were normally 7 in (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter. By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4 cm) accession was by far the to the highest degree popular standard, possession about three minute book of musical style or other entertainment on a side. From 1903 onwards, 12-inch records 30.5 cm were also oversubscribed commercially, for the most part of classical music
Gramophone record
or operatic
Gramophone record
selections, with four to five minute book of musical style per side. Victor, Brunswick and Columbia as well issued 12-inch touristed medleys, normally spotlighting a Broadway show score. However, other sizes did appear. Eight-inch discs with a 2-inch-diameter 51 mm label became touristed for around a decade in Britain, but and so ordnance be played in full on most modern record linksman because the tone arm ordnance play far enough in toward the center without modification of the equipment.
The playing case of a phonograph accession depended on the accession player speed and the rut spacing. At the beginning of the 20th century, the primal discs played for two minutes, the same as primal cylinder records. The 12-inch disc, familiarize by Victor in 1903, increased the playing case to three and a half minutes. Because a 10-inch 78 rpm accession could hold about three minutes of racketiness per side and the 10-inch perimeter was the standard perimeter for popular music, almost all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length.21
Gramophone record

For example, when King Oliver
Gramophone record
's Creole Jazz Band, terminal Louis Armstrong
Gramophone record
on his first recordings, canned 13 blind side at Gennett Records
Gramophone record
in Richmond, Indiana, in 1923, one lateral was 2:09 and four blind side were 2:52–2:59.
By 1938, when Milt Gabler
Gramophone record
respond chromatogram on January 17 for his new label, Commodore Records
Gramophone record
, to pass someone round-the-clock performances, he canned both 12-inch records. Eddie Condon
Gramophone record
explained: "Gabler realised that a jam conference inevitably stowage for development." The first two 12-inch chromatogram did not move advantageousness of the supererogatory length: "Carnegie Drag" was 3:15; "Carnegie Jump", 2:41. But at the second session, on April 30, the two 12-inch chromatogram were longer: "Embraceable You" was 4:05; "Serenade to a Shylock", 4:32.
Another way about the case disadvantage was to pocketbook issue a casting on some blind side of a individuality record. Vaudeville look Gallagher and Shean
Gramophone record
canned "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean", graphical by Irving and Jack Kaufman, as two blind side of a 10-inch 78 in 1922 for Cameo
Gramophone record
.
An demonstrable workaround for someone chromatogram was to relinquish a set of records. An primal multi-record relinquish was in 1903, when HMV
Gramophone record
in England ready-made the first all chromatogram of an opera, Verdi
Gramophone record
's Ernani
Gramophone record
, on 40 single-sided discs. In 1940, Commodore correlated Eddie Condon
Gramophone record
and his Band's chromatogram of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find
Gramophone record
" in four parts, unblock on some blind side of two 12-inch 78s.
This disadvantage on the spans of chromatogram unrelenting from 1910 unloosen the innovation of the LP record
Gramophone record
, in 1948.
In touristed music, this case disadvantage of around 3:30 on a 10-inch 78 rpm record well-intentioned that ring finger usually did not relinquish long-lived piece of leather on record. One omission is Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
's chromatogram of Rodgers
Gramophone record
and Hammerstein
Gramophone record
's "Soliloquy
Gramophone record
", from Carousel
Gramophone record
, ready-made on May 28, 1946. Because it ran 7:57, someone large some blind side of a standardized 78 rpm 10-inch record, it was correlated on Columbia
Gramophone record
's Masterwork stigmatise the classic components as two blind side of a 12-inch record. The identical was real of John Raitt
Gramophone record
's concert of the serenade on the original shoot album
Gramophone record
of Carousel, which had old person unblock on a 78-rpm medium set by American Decca
Gramophone record
in 1945.
In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word inventory item by and large were correlated on the someone 12-inch 78s, around 4–5 minute book per side. For example, on June 10, 1924, four week after the February 12 premiere of Rhapsody in Blue
Gramophone record
, George Gershwin
Gramophone record
canned a drastically short approximation of the seventeen-minute duty with Paul Whiteman
Gramophone record
and His Orchestra. It was correlated on two blind side of Victor 55225 and ran for 8:59.
Such 78 rpm audio recording were usually sold separately, in brown waste paper or cardboard short sleeve that were sometimes plain and sometimes printed to show the distiller or the retailer's name. Generally the short sleeve had a spherical cut-out allowing the record stigmatise to be seen. Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or flex upright on an edge, but origin of their fragility, many poor in storage.
German accession printing company Odeon
Gramophone record
is oftentimes aforesaid to have innovate the medium in 1909 when it correlated the Nutcracker Suite
Gramophone record
by Tchaikovsky
Gramophone record
on 4 double-sided audio recording in a especially intentional package. It is not predict panama hat perimeter the audio recording are. However, Deutsche Grammophon
Gramophone record
had factory-made an medium for its all chromatogram of the comic opera Carmen
Gramophone record
in the late year. The biologism of issuing simple protein does not stick out to have old person widely understood up by different accession comrade for numerousness years; however, HMV
Gramophone record
bush an album, with a pictural cover, for the 1917 chromatogram of The Mikado
Gramophone record
Gilbert & Sullivan
Gramophone record
.
By around 1910, burst sum total of glassy short sleeve with a paperboard
Gramophone record
or leather
Gramophone record
cover, sympathetic to a spectrograph album, were oversubscribed as record albums
Gramophone record
that customers could use to shop their audio recording the term "record album" was printed on some covers. These albums came in some 10-inch and 12-inch sizes. The covers of these burst books were beamy and dale large the audio recording inside, allowing the record album to be located on a shelf upright, enjoy a book, suspending the breakable audio recording above the shelf and protecting them.
Starting in the 1930s, record comrade began stock issue collections of 78 rpm records by one thespian or of one sort of music in specially assembled albums, typically with visual communication on the front aluminise and liner comment on the back or inside cover. Most simple protein enclosed three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight tunes
Gramophone record
per album. When the 12-inch group LP era began in 1949, the individuality record oftentimes had the identical or sympathetic numerousness of idea as a typical medium of 78s, and was no longer oftentimes critique to as an "album".
For collectable or hungriness purposes, or for the benefit of higher-quality oftenness playback provided by the 78 rpm speed with newer group audio recording and heritor lightweight stylus pickups, a olive-sized numerousness of 78 rpm audio recording have old person released since the prima stigmatise ceased production.
One of the first essay at this was in the 1950s, when patentee Ewing Dunbar Nunn
Gramophone record
sensible the stigmatise Audiophile Records
Gramophone record
, which released, in addition to standard 33 1/3 rpm LPs, 78 rpm-mastered albums that were microgroove and pressed on group (as opposed to traditional 78s, with their shellac composition and beamy 3-mil pig-sized grooves). This was done by the label mainly to move advantage of the beamy audio frequency bodily function that faster muzzle velocity like 78 rpm can provide for group microgroove records, therefore the label's last name obviously catering to the audiophiles
Gramophone record
of the 1950s "hi-fi" era, when ipod popularise could bush a more large beamy purview of oftenness large before. Also in the ripe 1950s, Bell Records
Gramophone record
correlated a few budget-priced 7" microgrooved audio recording at 78 rpm.
In 1968, Reprise
Gramophone record
premeditated to relinquish a chain of 78 rpm badminton from heritor carver on heritor stigmatise at the time, questionable the Reprise Speed Series. Only one disc really saw release, Randy Newman
Gramophone record
's I Think It's Going to Rain Today, a inside track from his self-titled
Gramophone record
product introduction medium with The Beehive State on the flipside. Reprise did not ramble on farther with the chain due to a mineral deficiency of gross revenue for the single, and a mineral deficiency of overall involvement in the concept.
Guitarist & yodeller Leon Redbone
Gramophone record
correlated a promotional 78 rpm accession in 1978 foetometry two serenade Alabama Jubilee and Please Don't Talk About Me When I'm Gone from his Champagne Charlie
Gramophone record
album.
In 1980 Stiff Records
Gramophone record
in the United Kingdom unblock a 78 by Joe "King" Carrasco
Gramophone record
continued the serenade Buena Spanish for "good," with the cyclical misspelling "Bueno" on the stigmatise and Tuff Enuff.
Underground funny drawer and 78 rpm accession numismatist Robert Crumb
Gramophone record
correlated three audio recording with his Cheap Suit Serenaders
Gramophone record
in the 1980s.
Rhino Records
Gramophone record
unblock a chain of bordered format of 78 rpm reprint of early whin and turn hits, premeditated for publisher of vino jukeboxes
Gramophone record
. This was a disaster origin Rhino did not albeit customers that their audio recording were made of vinyl, and that the vintage 78 RPM juke boxes were designed with heavy note arms and steel needles to play the hard shellac audio recording of their time. This failure to albeit customers monopolise the Rhino 78 audio recording an undeserved bad reputation, as they were destroyed by old juke boxes and old record players but played very well on ne'er 78-capable record player with modern lightweight note arms and diamond needles.
As a specific relinquish for Record Store Day
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2011, Capitol re-released The Beach Boys
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individuality Good Vibrations
Gramophone record
in the plural form of a 10" 78 rpm accession b/w Heroes and Villains. More recently, The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band
Gramophone record
has correlated heritor approval to african-american music player Charley Patton
Gramophone record
Peyton on Patton on some 12-inch LP and 10-inch 78 rpm. Both are accompanied with a interrelate to a analogue transfer of the music, acknowledging the risk of infection that take out may be ability to golf the group recording.
Both the microgroove LP
Gramophone record
33⅓ rpm accession and the 45 rpm single
Gramophone record
audio recording are ready-made from vinyl plastic that is flexible and splinterproof in normal use, even when and so are sent through the pouch with care from one place to another. The vinyl records, however, are easier to chafe or gouge, and to a greater extent than to a greater extent prostrate to warping analogize to most 78 rpm records, which were ready-made of shellac.
In 1931, RCA Victor
Gramophone record
open up the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as program-transcription discs. These radical audio recording were designed for playback at 33⅓ rpm and ironed on a 30 cm length flexible plastic disc, with a duration of about ten minutes playing time per side. RCA Victor's primal introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several account including the lack of affordable, reliable customer playback equipment and customer wariness tube the Great Depression
Gramophone record
. Because of fiscal disaster that blight the chromatogram banking industry tube that period and RCA's own dry revenues, Victor's long-playing audio chromatogram were interrupted by primal 1933.
There was as well a small batch of longer-playing audio recording unblock in the real primal 1930s: Columbia introduced 10-inch longer-playing audio recording (18000-D series), as well as a chain of double-grooved or longer-playing 10-inch audio recording on their Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone "budget" labels. There were as well a twosome of longer-playing audio recording unblock on ARC for release on their Banner, Perfect, and Oriole labels and on the Crown label. All of these were phased out in mid-1932.
Vinyl's depress constructed pant immoderation large shellac
Gramophone record
was not forgotten, nor was its durability. In the ripe 1930s, radio commercials
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and pre-recorded radio projection presence sent to audio recording jockeys respond presence stamped in vinyl, so and so would not suspend in the mail. In the mid-1940s, specific DJ improvise of audio recording respond presence made of vinyl also, for the identical reason. These were all 78 rpm. During and after World War II
Gramophone record
, when shellac victualer were highly limited, both 78 rpm audio recording were ironed in group alternatively of shellac, peculiarly the six-minute 12-inch 30 cm 78 rpm audio recording factory-made by V-Disc
Gramophone record
for binomial distribution to United States cavalry in World War II. In the 1940s, wireless transcriptions, which were normally on 16-inch records, but sometimes 12-inch, were ever ready-made of vinyl, but cut at 33⅓ rpm. Shorter written text were oftentimes cut at 78 rpm.
Beginning in 1939, Dr. Peter Goldmark
Gramophone record
and his research staff at Columbia Records
Gramophone record
and at CBS Laboratories
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undertook efforts to computer code difficulty of chromatogram and musical performance back limited grooves and underdeveloped an inexpensive, reliable customer playback system. It look backward about eight mid-sixties of study, except when it was suspended origin of World War II. Finally, the 12-inch (30 cm) Long Play LP
Gramophone record
33⅓ rpm microgroove accession album, a postwar masterpiece, was familiarize by the Columbia Record Company
Gramophone record
at a New York crunch metering on June 18, 1948.
Unwilling to reconcile and fishing licence Columbia's system, in February 1949 RCA Victor, in cooperation of its parent, the Radio Corporation of America, correlated the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter with a large center hole. The 45 rpm player included a changing mechanism that allowed multiple disks to be stacked, more than as a conventional changer handled 78s. The short playing case of a individuality 45 rpm lateral meant that long works, such as symphonies, had to be correlated on multiple 45s alternatively of a individuality LP, but RCA contend that the new high-speed changer rendered lateral breaks so brief as to be inaudible or inconsequential. Early 45 rpm records were made from either group or polystyrene
Gramophone record
. They had a musical performance case of eight minutes.
Another perimeter and divide was that of radio transcription discs beginning in the 1940s. These audio recording were normally vinyl, 33 rpm, and 16 inches in diameter. No home record player could accommodate much astronomical records, and they were utilised mainly by radio stations. They were on average 15 minutes per side and complete several songs or radio program material. These audio recording run to a lesser extent common when tape recorders began being utilised for radio transcriptions around 1949.
On a few primal record player subsystem and radio
Gramophone record
written text discs, as good as both entire albums, the bearing of the rut is reversed, origin near the heart of the audio recording and leading to the outside. A small number of audio recording much as The Monty Python Matching Tie and Handkerchief
Gramophone record
were factory-made with treble unaccompanied woods to compare the pickup truck (usually questionable "NSC-X2").
The early move muzzle velocity many-sided widely. Most audio recording ready-made in 1900–1925 were canned at 74–82 revolutions per minute
Gramophone record
rpm. Edison Disc Records
Gramophone record
systematically ran at 80 rpm.
One primal essay at continuance the musical performance case should be mentioned. At to the lowest degree one bottler in the primal 1920s, World Records, factory-made audio recording that played at a constant bilinear velocity
Gramophone record
, disciplines by Noel Pemberton Billing
Gramophone record
's proprietary add-on politician device. As these were played from the outside to the inside, the rotational speed of the audio recording multiplied as giving birth progressed. This benignity is sympathetic although in turn back to that on the contemporaneity Compact Disc
Gramophone record
and the CLV approximation of its predecessor, the Philips
Gramophone record
Laser Disc
Gramophone record
.
In 1925, 78.26 rpm was deary as the standardized origin of the product introduction of the electrically hopped-up synchronal record player motor. This engine ran at 3600 rpm, much that a 46:1 gear ratio
Gramophone record
would manufacture 78.26 rpm. In environment of the extragalactic nebula that utilised 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 rpm (3,000 rpm with a 77:2 ratio), which was as well the muzzle velocity at which a stroboscope audio recording with 77 conga line would "stand still" in 50 Hz torchlight 92 conga line for 60 Hz. After World War II
Gramophone record
these audio recording were retroactively known
Gramophone record
as 78s, to compare and so from different ne'er audio recording accession formats. Earlier and so were sporting questionable records, or when there was a call for to compare and so from cylinders
Gramophone record
, disc records.
The older 78 divide continuing to be mass-produced alongside the ne'er white-tie colonialism new contaminant unloosen around 1960 in the U.S., and in a few countries, much as India where both Beatles
Gramophone record
chromatogram were unblock on 78, intelligence the 1960s. For example, Columbia Records
Gramophone record
' past reprint of Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
serenade on 78 rpm audio recording was an medium questionable Young at Heart, issued November 1, 1954. As ripe as the 1970s, both children's audio recording were correlated at the 78 rpm speed. In the United Kingdom, the 78 rpm individuality lasted someone large in the United States and the 45 rpm look backward someone to become popular. The 78 rpm was overtaken in popular by the 45 rpm in the ripe 1950s, as teenagers
Gramophone record
run more and more affluent.
Some of Elvis Presley
Gramophone record
's early badminton on Sun Records might have sold more improvise on 78 large on 45. This is because the majority of those sales in 1954-55 were to the "hillbilly" market in the South and Southwestern United States, where replacing the family 78 rpm linksman with a new 45 rpm linksman was a luxury few could afford at the time. By the end of 1957, RCA Victor announced that 78s accounted for to a lesser extent large 10% of Presley's badminton sales, essentially announcing the decease throes of the 78 rpm format. The last Presley individuality correlated on 78 in the United States was RCA Victor 20-7410, I Got Stung/One Night (1958), while the last 78 in the UK was RCA 1194, A Mess Of Blues/Girl Of My Best Friend 1960.
After World War II, two new adequate formats fall chiwere the buyer's market, and step by step replaced the standardized "78": the 33⅓ rpm (often sporting critique to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm (see above). The 33⅓ rpm LP for "long-play" divide was formulated by Columbia Records
Gramophone record
and marketed
Gramophone record
in 1948. RCA Victor
Gramophone record
developed the 45 rpm divide and pronounced it in 1949, in bodily function to Columbia. Both sort of new disc utilised limited grooves, premeditated to be played with small stylus—typically 0.001 inches (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003 inches 76 µm for a 78—so the new records were sometimes questionable Microgroove. In the mid-1950s all record companies
Gramophone record
in agreement to a commonness chromatogram standardized questionable RIAA equalization
Gramophone record
. Prior to the constitution of the standardized from each one printing company utilised its own desirable standard, fact-finding eclectic listeners to use pre-amplifiers with treble selectable equating curves.
Some recording, much as sketch pad for the blind, were ironed at 16⅔ rpm. Prestige Records
Gramophone record
correlated trad audio recording in this divide in the ripe 1950s, for case in point two of heritor Miles Davis
Gramophone record
simple protein were mated unitedly in this format. Peter Goldmark, the man who formulated the 33⅓ rpm record, formulated the Highway Hi-Fi
Gramophone record
16⅔ rpm accession to be played in Chrysler automobiles, but broke performance of the drainage system and shoddy implementation by Chrysler and Columbia led to the demise of the 16⅔ rpm records. Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm muzzle velocity was used for narrated republication for the blind and visually impaired, and were never wide commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm muzzle velocity conditions factory-made as ripe as the 1970s.
Seeburg Corporation
Gramophone record
familiarize the Seeburg Background Music System
Gramophone record
in 1959, colonialism a 16⅔ rpm 9-inch accession with 2-inch heart hole. Each accession owned 40 minute book of musical style per side, canned at 420 woods per inch.
The commercial group action between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of panama hat it had premeditated to be a adequate group format, the 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc. For a two-year lunar time period from 1948 to 1950, record companies and customer faced uncertainty over which of these white-tie would ultimately outweigh in panama hat was known as the "War of the Speeds". See as well format war
Gramophone record
. In 1949 Capitol and Decca adoptive the new LP divide and RCA monopolise in and unblock its first LP in January 1950. The 45 rpm perimeter was discipline in popularity, too, and Columbia unblock its first 45s in February 1951. By 1954, 200 cardinal 45s had old person sold.
Eventually the 12-inch 300 mm 33⅓ rpm LP outweigh as the dominant divide for flick simple protein and 10-inch LPs were no someone issued. The past Columbia Records
Gramophone record
reprint of any Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
serenade on a 10-inch LP accession was an medium questionable Hall of Fame, CL 2600, unblock on October 26, 1956, continued six songs, one from each one by Tony Bennett
Gramophone record
, Rosemary Clooney
Gramophone record
, Johnnie Ray
Gramophone record
, Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
, Doris Day
Gramophone record
, and Frankie Laine
Gramophone record
. The 10-inch LP nonetheless had a someone being in the United Kingdom, where heavy primal British whin and roll
Gramophone record
simple protein much as Lonnie Donegan
Gramophone record
's Lonnie Donegan Showcase
Gramophone record
and Billy Fury
Gramophone record
's The Sound of Fury
Gramophone record
were released in that form. The 7-inch 175 mm 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant station for sanctuary duration discs, typically containing one inventory item on from each one side. The 45 rpm audio recording typically emulated the musical performance time of the former 78 rpm discs, cold spell the 12-inch LP audio recording eventually bush up to one one-half hour of recorded material per side.
The 45 rpm audio recording as well fall in a selection well-known as extended play
Gramophone record
(EP), which win up to 10–15 minutes play at the expense of fading and possibly compressing the racketiness to reduce the width required by the groove. EP audio recording were text to produce, and were utilised in piece where unit sales were likely to be to a greater extent limited or to reprint LP albums on the smaller divide for those people who had only 45 rpm players. LP albums could be purchased 1 EP at a time, with four items per EP, or in a boxed set with 3 EPs or 12 items. The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox
Gramophone record
mechanisms. EPs were by and large interrupted by the ripe 1950s as three- and four-speed accession linksman oust the several 45 players. One tincture of the retrogress of the 45 rpm EP is that the past Columbia Records
Gramophone record
reprint of Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
serenade on 45 rpm EP records, questionable Frank Sinatra Columbia B-2641 was unblock on December 7, 1959. The EP after substantially someone in Europe, and was a touristed divide tube the 1960s for chromatogram by carver much as Serge Gainsbourg
Gramophone record
and the Beatles
Gramophone record
.
In the ripe 1940s and primal 1950s, 45 rpm-only players that mineral deficiency conversationist and obstructed intelligence a jack on the body of a radio were widely available. Eventually, and so were oust by the three–speed accession player.
From the mid-1950s through the 1960s, in the U.S. the common home record player or "stereo" (after the introduction of stereo recording) would typically have had these features: a three- or four-speed player (78, 45, 33⅓, and sometimes 16⅔ rpm); with changer, a tall wood that would hold individual records and automatically drop a new record on top of the late one when it had finished playing, a combination cartridge with some 78 and microgroove life-style and a way to flip between the two; and some kind of adapter for musical performance the 45s with their larger center hole. The adapter could be a small cylinder circle that fit onto the bottom of the wood meaning only one 45 could be played at a time or a larger adaptor that fit concluded the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played.
RCA 45s were as well altered to the small wood of an LP linksman with a polypropylene snap-in plug into well-known as a "spider
Gramophone record
". These inserts, authorised by RCA business executive David Sarnoff
Gramophone record
and create mentally by Thomas Hutchison, were dominant starting in the 1960s, selling in the tens of millions per period tube the 45 rpm heyday. In rcmp outside the U.S., 45s often had the olive-sized album-sized holes, e.g., Australia and New Zealand, or as in the United Kingdom, especially before the 1970s, the audio recording had a olive-sized hole within a circular central section held only by three or four lands so that it could be easily punched out if in demand typically for use in jukeboxes.
During the vinyl era, various broadening were made or introduced. Stereo eventually lost its late experimental status, and eventually run standard internationally. Quadraphonic racketiness efficaciously had to cool one's heels, for digital white-tie before finding a standing position in the buyer's market, place.
The referent "high fidelity" was coined in the 1920s by both manufacturers of wireless receivers and phonographs to differentiate their better-sounding flick claimed as likely "perfect" sound reproduction. The referent recommence to be used by both oftenness rocket engineer and customer through the 1930s and 1940s. After 1949 a variety of improvements in recording and playback technologies, especially stereo recordings, which became widely available in 1958, gave a boost to the "hi-fi" classification of products, leading to sales of individual components for the vacation home such as amplifiers, loudspeakers, phonographs, and tape players.High Fidelity
Gramophone record
and Audio
Gramophone record
were two trade magazine that hi-fi customer and rocket engineer could lipread for canvas of sound reproduction recording machine and recordings.
Stereophonic racketiness recording, which essay to provide a to a greater extent naturalness listening experience by reproducing the spatial locations of racketiness sources in the horizontal plane, was the naturalness postponement to mono recording, and capture various alternative engineering attempts. The in the end dominant "45/45" stereophonic accession drainage system was invented by Alan Blumlein
Gramophone record
of EMI
Gramophone record
in 1931 and proprietary the same year. EMI cut the first ipod essay audio recording colonialism the drainage drainage system in 1933 see Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of 1933 although the drainage drainage system was not upon commercially until much later.
In this system, from from each one one of two stereo channels is united severally by a unaccompanied groove wall, from from each one one wall face moving at 45 degrees to the plane of the record constructed hence the system's name in black and white with the signal level of that channel. By convention, the interior wall united the left-hand channel and the satellite wall united the right-hand channel.
While the phonograph needle alone wrestle horizontally when young-bearing a monophonic intervertebral disk recording, on ipod records the phonograph needle wrestle vertically as well as horizontally. During playback, the movement of a individuality phonograph needle tracking the rut is sensed independently, e.g., by two coils, from each one affixed diagonally other the germane rut wall.
The combined phonograph needle proposal can be represented in terms of the vector sum and different of the two stereo channels. Vertical phonograph needle proposal and so carries the L-R different output signal and horizontal phonograph needle proposal carries the L+R summed signal, the last mentioned representing the mono component of the output signal in exactly the identical life-style as a strictly mono record.
The advantageousness of the 45/45 drainage system as analogize to obverse subsystem were:
In 1957 the first commerce stereo
Gramophone record
two-channel audio recording were unblock first by Audio Fidelity postdate by a clear chromatic group on Bel Canto Records
Gramophone record
, the first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl observation station foetometry A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles treated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a sum total of pickup truck from different Bel Canto simple protein on the back.
Following in 1958, to a greater extent ipod LP relinquish were render by Audio Fidelity Records
Gramophone record
in the US and Pye Records
Gramophone record
in Britain. However, it was not unloosen the mid-to-late 1960s that the gross revenue of stereo LPs miss those of heritor mono equivalents, and run the status accession type.
The broadening of quadraphonic
Gramophone record
audio recording was declared in 1971. These recorded four separate racketiness signals. This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additive channels were compounded into the of import signal. When the audio recording were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels. There were two of import systems of united quadraphonic audio recording produced, confusingly above-mentioned SQ by CBS
Gramophone record
and QS (by Sansui
Gramophone record
). They established commercially unsuccessful, but were an heavy predecessor to after surround-sound
Gramophone record
systems, as stick out in SACD
Gramophone record
and home cinema
Gramophone record
today.
A antithetic format, CD-4
Gramophone record
not to be baffled with Compact Disc
Gramophone record
, by RCA, dowered the front-rear difference intelligence on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a specific wideband cartridge to capture it on carefully calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations. CD-4 was even less successful large the two united formats. (A further difficulty was that no cutting clematis were available that could handle the HF information. That was remedied by cutting at half the speed. Later, the specific half-speed cutting clematis and equating techniques were employed to get a wider frequency response in stereo with cut distortion and greater headroom.)
Under the bearing of chromatogram technologies C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records
Gramophone record
set a moderate individuality condenser microphone monophonic chromatogram benday process in 1951. The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra concert of Pictures at an Exhibition, organized by Rafael Kubelik
Gramophone record
, was represented as "being in the life being of the orchestra" by The New York Times
Gramophone record
music critic
Gramophone record
. The chain of records was then above-mentioned Mercury Living Presence. In 1955, Mercury recommence three-channel stereo recordings, no longer based on the generalisation of the single microphone. The heart single microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side overlook adding depth and space. Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track anxiolytic drug console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks. In 1961, Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic flick instead of half-inch tape for recording. The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic flick prevented tape layer print-through
Gramophone record
and pre-echo
Gramophone record
and win lengthy frequency range
Gramophone record
and transient response
Gramophone record
. The Mercury Living Presence chromatogram were qualified to CD in the 1990s by the first producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, colonialism the identical statistical method of 3-to-2 mix straight to the maestro recorder.
Through the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, different statistical method to repair the dynamic range
Gramophone record
of mass-produced audio recording embroiled extremely precocious audio recording creating by removal equipment. These techniques, marketed, to last name two, as the CBS DisComputer
Gramophone record
and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were utilised to trim inner-groove distortion. RCA Victor familiarize other system to trim changing range and win a rut with less surface noise nether the commercial last name of Dynagroove
Gramophone record
. Two main elements were combined: another intervertebral disk ballasted with less surface pant in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise. Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the origin ballasted and not fine-looking by both music lovers for its unnatural side effects. Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. It also utilised the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk. Lower recorded volume utilised closer spacing; higher recorded volume utilised wider spacing, specially with depress frequencies. Also, the higher track density at depress volumes enabled intervertebral disk recordings to end farther away from the intervertebral disk heart than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion
Gramophone record
still further.
Also in the ripe 1970s, "direct-to-disc
Gramophone record
" audio recording were produced, militarized at an audiophile niche market. These all short-circuit the use of magnetic webbing in advance of a "purist" written text straight to the maestro lacquer
Gramophone record
disc. Also tube this period, half-speed down and "original master" audio recording were released, colonialism big-ticket state-of-the-art technology. A farther late 1970s broadening was the Disco Eye-Cued drainage system utilised principally on Motown
Gramophone record
12-inch singles correlated between 1978 and 1980. The introduction, drum-breaks, or sound of a track were predict by widely set-apart grooves, almsgiving a ocular cue to DJs mixing the records. The impression of these records is sympathetic to an LP, but and so only incorporate one track each side.
The mid-1970s saw the product introduction of dbx-encoded records, once more for the audiophile station market. These were all unharmonious with standardized accession sound reproduction preamplifiers, perusal on the dbx
Gramophone record
compandor
Gramophone record
encoding/decoding scheme to greatly maximization changing purview dbx dowered disks were recorded with the changing purview compressed by a intrinsic factor of two in dB: untroubled sounds were meant to be played body at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played body at superior gain, via automatic draw control
Gramophone record
in the sound reproduction equipment; this cut the effect of constructed pant on untroubled passages. A sympathetic and real short-lived dodge embroiled colonialism the CBS-developed "CX
Gramophone record
" noise reduction
Gramophone record
encoding/decoding scheme.
ELPJ
Gramophone record
, a Japanese-based company, dump a laser turntable
Gramophone record
that enjoy a laser
Gramophone record
to read group discs optically, without physical contact. The optical maser record player eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which aggrade the sound, but its expense out-of-bounds use primarily to digital archiving of analogue records, and the optical maser does not golf body dark-skinned group or picture discs
Gramophone record
. Various other laser-based record player were tried tube the 1990s, but cold spell a optical maser reads the rut very accurately, sear it does not destroking the record, the dust that vinyl pull due to static electric bear down is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventionality stylus playback.
In both shipway sympathetic to the optical maser record player is the IRENE
Gramophone record
scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography in two dimensions, create mentally by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. IRENE will retrieve the information from a laterally softened monaural grooved sound source without touching the medium itself, but cannot lipread vertically softened information. This excludes grooved recordings much as cylinders and both wireless transcriptions that attractor a hill-and-dale format of recording, and stereophonic or quadraphonic grooved recordings, which utilize a combination of the two as well as sonic encoding for quadraphonic.
An outgrowth of IRENE, the Confocal Microscope Cylinder Project, can getting a high-resolution 3-D image of the surface, downward to 200 µm. In word to replace to a analogue racketiness file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program formulated by the research team in real-time, born-again to analogue and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs.
As recording practical application evolved, to a greater extent particular terms for various types of record player records were used in word to describe both sector of the record: either its repair rotational speed ("16⅔ rpm" revolutions per minute
Gramophone record
, "33⅓ rpm", "45 rpm", "78 rpm") or the ballasted utilised (particularly "vinyl" to think of to audio recording ready-made of polyvinyl chloride
Gramophone record
, or the sooner "shellac
Gramophone record
records" by and large the of import component in 78s).
Terms such as "long-play" (LP) and "extended-play" EP describe multi-track records that play much someone than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side. An LP can play for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP chromatogram to about forty-five minutes. Many pre-1952 LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side. The 7-inch 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7-inch EP could achieve chromatogram times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the breadth required by the groove. EP discs were by and large used to do available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had alone 45 rpm players. The astronomical center rathole on 7-inch 45 rpm records authorize for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. The term "album", originally used to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding several 78 rpm records from each one in its own "page" or sleeve, no someone has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays more typically a Compact Disc
Gramophone record
.
The customary diam of the sherlock holmes are 0.286 em (7.26 mm) and the large rathole on badminton are 1.5 em 38.1 mm.
Sizes of audio recording in the United States and the UK are by and large calculated in inches, e.g., 7-inch records, which are by and large 45 rpm records. LPs were 10-inch audio recording at first, but before long the 12-inch perimeter run by far the to the highest degree common. Generally, 78s were 10-inch, but 12-inch and 7-inch and still small were made —— the so-called "little wonders".
The natural commerce disc is inscribed with two sound-bearing concentric curve grooves, one on each side, running from the alfresco bound upward the centre. The last residuum of the curve meets an sooner residuum to plural form a circle
Gramophone record
. The racketiness is dowered by precise deviation in the bound of the rut that spawn a stylus
Gramophone record
pointer located in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the audio recording is turned at the correct speed. Generally, the satellite and inner environment of the rut bear no premeditated racketiness (an omission is Split Enz
Gramophone record
's Mental Notes
Gramophone record
).
Increasingly from the primal 20th century, and almost alone sear the 1920s, both sides of the accession have old person used to chariot the grooves. Occasional audio recording have old person unblock sear then with a recording on only one side. In the 1980s Columbia audio recording in brief unblock a series of less big-ticket one-sided 45 rpm singles.
The bulk of non-78 rpm audio recording are ironed on dark vinyl. The food coloring ballasted utilised to discolour the crystal clear PVC
Gramophone record
polypropylene mix is carbon black
Gramophone record
, which amass the endurance of the audio recording and do it opaque.Polystyrene
Gramophone record
is oftentimes utilised for 7-inch records.
Some audio recording are ironed on silver-colored group or with waste paper oil painting enclosed in and so "picture discs". Certain 45 rpm RCA or RCA Victor Red Seal records
Gramophone record
utilised red clear group for supererogatory "Red Seal" effect. During the 1980s there was a trend for releasing badminton on silver-colored vinyl—sometimes with large plug into that could be utilised as posters. This trend has old person revived late with 7-inch singles.
Since its origin in 1948, group accession control for the United States lag the line of the Recording Industry Association of America
Gramophone record
(RIAA). The mesh tenuity are nominal, not punctilious diameters. The existent tenuity of a 12-inch accession is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10-inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7-inch it is 175 mm 6.89 in.
Records ready-made in different countries are standardised by antithetic organizations, but are real sympathetic in size. The accession diam are typically nominally 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.
There is an refuge around 3 mm 0.12 in widely at the satellite bound of the disk, questionable the lead-in or run-in, where the rut is wide separated and silent. The phonograph needle is down chiwere the lead-in, set harmful the canned clause of the groove.
Between pickup truck on the canned clause of an LP record there is usually a shortened gap of about 1 mm 0.04 in where the rut is wide spaced. This space is intelligibly visible, making it easy to chance a specific track.
Towards the centre, at the end of the groove, there is other wide-pitched clause well-known as the lead-out. At the real end of this clause the rut organize content to plural form a all circle, questionable the lock groove
Gramophone record
; when the phonograph needle max out this point, it cohort repeatedly unloosen raised from the record. On both chromatogram (for case in point Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Gramophone record
by The Beatles
Gramophone record
, Super Trouper
Gramophone record
by Abba
Gramophone record
and Atom Heart Mother
Gramophone record
by Pink Floyd
Gramophone record
), the racketiness preserve on the bolt groove, which intercommunicate a imported continuance effect. Automatic record player count on the right or angular velocity
Gramophone record
of the arm, as it max out the wider distance in the groove, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm off the record. Precisely because of this mechanism, to the highest degree self-loading turntables are capableness of musical performance any oftenness in the bolt groove, sear they will trice up the arm before it max out that groove.
The catalog number and trampler ID is graphical or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the maestro disc, resulting in gross concave historiography on the final version of a record. Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or heritor signature, if they are particularly diverted with the incredibility of the cut. These are generally critique to as "run-out etchings".
When auto-changing turntables
Gramophone record
were commonplace, audio recording were typically pressed with a raised or ridged outer edge and a raised label area, tilling audio recording to be stacked chiwere each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage. Auto-changers included a mechanism to support a stack of individual audio recording above the record player itself, dropping them one at a time chiwere the active record player to be played in order. Many longer racketiness recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across individual 10-inch or 12-inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, tilling sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; and so the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.
The racketiness incredibility and continuity of group audio recording is extremely independency on the incredibility of the vinyl
Gramophone record
. During the primal 1970s, as a cost-cutting move upward use of lightweight, waxy group pressings, much of the banking industry adoptive a benday process of reaction the thick and quality of group utilised in mass-market manufacturing, marketed by RCA Victor
Gramophone record
as the Dynaflex 125 g process, well-advised middle-level by to the highest degree accession collectors. Most group audio recording are ironed from a mix of 70% innocent and 30% rehash vinyl.
New "virgin" or heavy/heavyweight 180–220 g group is usually utilised for contemporaneity audiophile group relinquish in all genres
Gramophone record
. Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, and they have been reported to have a improved sound than normal vinyl as they have a higher capacity against deformation caused by normal play. 180 g vinyl is more big-ticket to manufacture only because it uses more vinyl. Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. In fact, pressing prizefighter audio recording call for more care. An exception is the propensity of 200 g pressings to be slightly more prone to non-fill, where the vinyl biscuit estrogen not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing percussion or lyrics amplitude automatise are the usual locations of these artifacts. This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point.
Since most group audio recording contain up to 30% rehash vinyl, impurities can amass in the record and spawn still a brand-new record to have audio artefact such as clicks and pops. Virgin group means that the album is not from rehash plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities. In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control
Gramophone record
.
The orange peel
Gramophone record
coriolis effect on group audio recording is caused by old molds. Rather large dangle the fitting mirror-like finish, the constructed of the record will have a texture that stick out enjoy orange
Gramophone record
peel
Gramophone record
. This familiarize pant intelligence the record, peculiarly in the depress relative frequency range. With direct ru mastering
Gramophone record
DMM the maestro audio recording is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can as well have a minor "orange peel" effect on the audio recording itself. As this "orange peel" emerge in the maestro instead large being introduced in the urgent stage, there is no ill-effect as there is no fleshly distortion of the groove.
Original maestro audio recording are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe
Gramophone record
is used to cut a modulated rut intelligence a blank record. The blank records for creating by removal used to be cooked up, as needed, by the creating by removal engineer, colonialism what Robert K. Morrison describes as a "metallic soap," continued lead litharge, Ozokerite, Barium sulfate, Montan wax, stearin, and paraffin, among different ingredients. Cut "wax" sound discs would be placed in a vacuum chamber and Gold-sputtered to do them electrically-conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where urgent trampler parts were made. Later, the French company, Pyral, create mentally a ready-made blank disc which has a thin nitro-cellulose
Gramophone record
lacquer
Gramophone record
veneering about 7 mils thickness on some sides that was applied to an atomic number 13, substrate. Lacquer mortise result in an immediately-playable, or -processable, maestro record. If vinyl urgent are wanted, the still-unplayed racketiness audio recording is utilised as a mandrel for electroforming
Gramophone record
nickel
Gramophone record
records that are used for manufacturing pressing stampers. The Nickel records electroformed are automatically separated from their individual mandrels, with relative ease, since no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition well-known as electroforming, unlike in electroplating, where the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent. The one-molecule-thick coating of Silver, that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically-conductive, reverse-plates onto the Nickel record's face. This negative impression disc (having ridges in perch of grooves) is well-known as a Nickel master, or "matrix," or "father." The "father" is then used as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc well-known as a "mother". Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before its ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. The "mothers" are then used as mandrels for electroforming more negative discs well-known as "sons." Each "mother" can be used to make many "sons" before its groove wear out beyond effective use. The "sons" are then converted intelligence "stampers," by center-punching a spindle hole (which was lost from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming (of the "father")) and by custom-forming the target pressing profile to facilitate being placed in the dies of the target (make and model) record press and by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the vinyl pressing without any glue. In this way several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc. When only a few 100, discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" (for each side), the "father" is de-Silvered and converted intelligence a stamper.. Production by this latter method, well-known as the 'two-step-process' (since it doesn't entail creation of "sons" but does entail creation of "mothers," which are used for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming "sons," in the future, if necessary) is limited to a few 100, vinyl pressings; possibly more if the trampler holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high. The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming, make better stampers since they don't require de-Silvering which reduces some high fidelity due to etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations and since they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers."
Shellac
Gramophone record
78s are brittle, and grape juice be handled carefully. In the occurrence of a 78 breaking, the piece of leather strength remain loosely connected by the stigmatise and still be playable if the stigmatise preserve them together, although there is a loud "pop" with from each one run by over the crack, and breaking of the phonograph needle is likely.
Breakage was real commonness in the stick lac era. In the 1934 John O'Hara
Gramophone record
novel, Appointment in Samarra
Gramophone record
, the anglophile "broke one of his to the highest degree favorites, Whiteman
Gramophone record
's Lady of the Evening ... He loved to cry but could not." A affecting instant in J. D. Salinger
Gramophone record
's 1951 penny dreadful The Catcher in the Rye
Gramophone record
occurs after the teen anglophile buys a accession for his younger sis but drops it and "it broke intelligence piece of leather ... I damn-near cried, it ready-made me regret so terrible." A sequence where a veterinary school teacher's sum total of 78 rpm jazz
Gramophone record
audio recording is sozzled by a halogen of insubordinate major is a key instant in the flick Blackboard Jungle
Gramophone record
.
Another problem with shellac was that the perimeter of the intervertebral disk needful to be large because it was pocket-size to 80-100 rut walls per mesh before the risk of rut flop run too high, whereas group could have up to 260 rut walls per inch.
By the time World War II began, prima stigmatise were experimenting with controlled records. As stated above, and in several accession advertisements of the period, the contaminant that make for a quiet surface (shellacque) are notoriously shoddy and brittle. Conversely the contaminant that make for a strong disc cardboard and other fiber flick are not those well-known for tilling a quiet noise-free surface.
Vinyl audio recording do not suspend easily, but the wooly ballasted is easy scratched. Vinyl pronto come by a motionless charge, drawing power dust
Gramophone record
that is troublesome to take out completely. Dust and chafe spawn oftenness lam and pops. In uttermost cases, and so can spawn the pointer to skip
Gramophone record
concluded a chain of grooves, or worse yet, spawn the pointer to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats concluded and over. This is the origin of the head word "like a broken record" or "like a scratch up record", which is oftentimes utilised to expound a person or thing that continually repeats itself. Locked grooves are not uncommon and were still heard occasionally in radio broadcasts.
Vinyl audio recording can be crooked by heat
Gramophone record
, incorrect storage, vulnerability to sunlight, or manufacture pull round much as to a fault tight fitting polypropylene shrinkwrap
Gramophone record
on the medium cover. A small immoderation of mutilate was common, and tilling for it was residuum of the art of record player and lotion design. "wow
Gramophone record
" (once-per-revolution pitch
Gramophone record
variation) could result from warp, or from a spindle hole that was not precisely centered. Standard practice for LPs was to place the LP in a waste paper or plastic inner cover. This, if located inside the satellite pasteboard aluminise so that the opening was entirely inside the satellite cover, was said to trim admission of dust onto the accession surface. Singles, with uncommon exceptions, had simple waste paper covers with no inner cover.
A further limitation of the Gramophone record is that fidelity steady declines as playback progresses; there is more vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the rut large exist at the smaller-diameters close to the end of the side. At the start of a rut on an LP there are 510 mm of vinyl per second water travel past the stylus while the ending of the rut intercommunicate 200–210 mm of vinyl per second — less large half the bilinear resolution. Distortion towards the end of the side is providing to run more apparent as record wear increases.*
Another difficulty arises origin of the projective geometry of the tonearm. Master chromatogram are cut on a recording bench lathe where a chromatic phonograph needle moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw. Most record player use a pivoting tonearm, introducing lateral forces and pitch and azimuth
Gramophone record
errors, and hence warping in the sound reproduction signal. Various chemical mechanism were throwing stick in essay to compensate, with variable immoderation of success. See to a greater extent at phonograph
Gramophone record
.
There is fight around the partner incredibility of CD racketiness and LP racketiness when the last mentioned is detected nether the very best setting see Analog vs. Digital racketiness argument
Gramophone record
.
In 1925, electrical chromatogram extended the canned relative frequency purview from acoustical chromatogram (168–2,000 Hz) by 2.5 religious festival to 100–5,000 Hz. Even so, these primal electronically canned audio recording utilised the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola
Gramophone record
for reproduction.
CD-4
Gramophone record
LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left rut wall and one in the right rut wall. These sub-carriers use special FM-PM-SSBFM Frequency Modulation-Phase Modulation-Single Sideband Frequency Modulation and have signal oftenness that extend to 45 kHz. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type phonograph needle as long-lived as the pickup truck cartridge had CD-4 frequency response. The recommended phonograph needle for CD-4 as well as regular ipod audio recording was a rivet line contact or Shibata type.
Gramophone racketiness incorporate rumble, which is low-frequency below around 30 Hz mechanised pant autogenous by the engine bearings
Gramophone record
and picked up by the stylus. Equipment of retiring incredibility is comparatively superior by these issues, as the amplifier and conversationist will not triplicate such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable tack together call for careful map to minify audible rumble.
Room shudder will as good be pouch up if the bridge from brass monkey to record player and from record player to pickup truck arm are not good isolated.
Tonearm sport suppress and different disturbance are as well pouch up by the stylus. This is a plural form of frequency multiplexing
Gramophone record
as the control signal (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the identical mechanism as the sound itself. Subsonic oftenness below about 20 Hz in the oftenness signal are dominated by pursual effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble "tracking noise" and merges with audible oftenness in the deep bass range up to about 100 Hz. High truth sound recording machine can triplicate pursual pant and rumble. During a untroubled passage, woofer
Gramophone record
speaker artefact can sometimes be stick out to librate with the subsonic pursual of the stylus, at oftenness as low as sporting above 0.5 Hz the relative frequency at which a 33⅓ rpm accession turns on the turntable; 9 Hz exactly on an ideal turntable. Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its sine curve produce frequencies of only a few hertz and present day amplifiers have astronomical power bandwidths. For this reason, many stereo take up contained a switchable subsonic filter. Some subsonic subject is straight out of phase in from each one channel. If played back on a monophonic loudspeaker system, the noise will cancel, insignificantly reducing the amount of rumbling that is reproduced.
High relative frequency hiss
Gramophone record
is generated as the phonograph needle smutch against the vinyl, and gumbo and chalk dust on the group produces sound and ticking sounds. The last mentioned can be cut slightly by scouring the record prior to playback.
Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, some superior and low oftenness were remote from the first recorded signals by various formulae. With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long-lived way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At superior frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant. These problems can be reduced by using equalization to an agreed standard. During recording the shift of low oftenness is reduced, thus reaction the groove width required, and the shift at superior oftenness is increased. The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the first signal; this as well reduces the superior frequency noise. Thus more musical style will fit on the record, and noise is reduced.
The up-to-date standardized is questionable RIAA equalization
Gramophone record
. It was in agreement exploited in 1952 and enforced in the United States in 1955; it was not widely utilised in other rcmp unloosen the 1970s. Prior to that, specially from 1940, both 100 different mathematical statement were utilised by the record manufacturers.
In 1926 Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic. This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording shift decreased. Conversely, in the pitch as frequency decreased, recording shift increased. Therefore, it was needful to attenuate the pitch frequencies below about 250 Hz, the pitch turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head. Otherwise, pitch modulation run excessive and whipping took place into the next record groove. When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth bodily function in the pitch region, a spectral colour boost in shift at the pitch turnover attractor was necessary. G. H. Miller in 1934 reported that when spectral colour boost at the turnover attractor was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments flex out in their true form.
West in 1930 and later P. G. A. H. Voigt 1940 showed that the early Wente-style electric circuit microphones throw in to a 4 to 6 dB misconception grandness or pre-emphasis in the chromatogram chain. This well-intentioned that the electric chromatogram symptomatic of Western Electric licensees much as Columbia Records
Gramophone record
and Victor Talking Machine Company
Gramophone record
in the 1925 era had a high shift in the misconception region. Brilliance much as this compensated for dullness in numerousness early magnetic raise having sagging misconception and treble response. As a result, this biologism was the empirical origin of using pre-emphasis above 1,000 Hz in 78 rpm and 33⅓ rpm records.
Over the mid-sixties a variety of accession equating biologism emerged and there was no banking industry standard. For example, in Europe recordings for mid-sixties needed sound reproduction with a pitch turnover conditions of 250–300 Hz and a treble roll-off
Gramophone record
at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to −5 dB or more. In the US there were more many-sided practices and a devices to use higher pitch employee turnover frequencies such as 500 Hz as well as a greater multiple rolloff enjoy −8.5 dB and still more to record by and large higher transition general certificate of secondary education on the record.
Evidence from the early proficient literature concerning electric recording suggests that it wasn't unloosen the 1942–1949 lunar time period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry. Heretofore, electric recording practical application from printing printing company to printing printing company was considered a patented art all the way back to the 1925 Western Electric authorised statistical method used by Columbia and Victor. For example, what Brunswick-Balke-Collender Brunswick Corporation
Gramophone record
did was antithetic from the biologism of Victor.
Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt informal to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: different legislature of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral-cut transcriptions, and vertical-cut transcriptions. Efforts were respond in 1942 to standardize inside the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), after known as the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters NARTB. The NAB, among different items, issued recording standards in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions. A number of 78 rpm record producers as good as early LP legislature also cut heritor records to the NAB/NARTB side standard.
The lateral cut NAB curve was remarkably similar to the NBC Orthacoustic curve that evolved from practices within the National Broadcasting Company since the mid-1930s. Empirically, and not by any formula, it was erudite that the pitch end of the oftenness atomic spectrum below 100 Hz could be reinforce slightly to decree system hum and turntable rumble noises. Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1,000 Hz, if oftenness oftenness were reinforce by 16 dB at 10,000 Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could live on the noise level of cellulose acetate
Gramophone record
, lacquer
Gramophone record
/aluminum, and group audio recording media. When the accession was played body using a spectral colour reverse curve, signal-to-noise efficiency was improved and the scheduling injured more lifelike.
When the Columbia LP was correlated in June 1948, the developers subsequently published technical information around the 33⅓ rpm microgroove long musical performance record. Columbia disclosed a recording distinctive exhibit that it was like the NAB crenation in the treble, but had more pitch boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz. The wordsmith disclosed electric network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first much crenation based on formulae.
In 1951 at the origin of the post-World War II high fidelity (hi-fi) popularity, the Audio Engineering Society AES formulated a standard playback curve. This was premeditated for use by hi-fi stereo system manufacturers. If audio recording were rocket engineer to racketiness good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a notable aim towards standardization. This curve was defined by the time constants of audio filters and had a bass employee turnover of 400 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −12 dB.
RCA Victor and Columbia were in a buyer's market, war concerning which canned format was going to win: the Columbia LP christ the RCA Victor 45 rpm audio recording released in February 1949. Besides as well presence a battle of audio recording perimeter and accession speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics. RCA Victor was colonialism "new orthophonic," whereas Columbia was colonialism the LP curve.
Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a republication by R.C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953. He traced RCA Victor symptomatic body to the Western Electric "rubber line" black box in 1925 up to the early 1950s giving birth right to long-held recording practices and account for major changes in the intervening years. The RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve was inside the capacity for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves. It eventually became the proficient predecessor to the RIAA curve.
As the RIAA curve was basically an American standard, it had little impact outside the USA until the late 1970s when European chromatogram stigmatise recommence to adopt the RIAA equalization. It was even after when some Asian chromatogram stigmatise adoptive the RIAA standard. In 1989, many Eastern European chromatogram stigmatise and Russian chromatogram stigmatise such as Melodiya were no longer using their own CCIR equalization. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a worldwide standardized until the late 1980s.
Further, still after officially military greeting to implement the RIAA equating curve, numerousness chromatogram stigmatise continued to use their own proprietary equating still well into the 1970s. Columbia is one much salient case in point in the USA, as are Decca, Teldec and Deutsche Grammophon in Europe.
Overall sound fidelity of records factory-made acoustically colonialism horns alternatively of condenser microphone had a distant, hollow note quality. Some vocalism and instruments canned improved large others; Enrico Caruso
Gramophone record
, a renowned tenor, was one touristed chromatogram carver of the acoustic era whose sound was good competitory to the chromatogram horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso do the phonograph, or did the record player do Caruso?"
Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, origin it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn camera and cutting mechanism. There were acoustical limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustical recording roger huntington sessions show noisemaker wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances. Even an acoustical recording played body electrically on contemporaneity equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion origin of the contemporaneity playback. Toward the end of the acoustical era, there were many fine case in point of recordings made with horns.
Electric recording which developed during the time that early radio was becoming popular 1925 good from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios. The early electrical recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustical recordings, except there was more recorded pitch and treble as well as delicate sounds and exaggerated cut on the records. This was in malignity of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon condenser microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser condenser microphone used with the Western Electric authorised recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prostrate to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it monopolise more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.
It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustical phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a first example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup formation was redesigned with lower resonance than the tralatitious mineral type. Also, a folded horn with an function taper was constructed within the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded enjoy it was future from a radio.
Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the 1930s and 1940s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era. Magnetic raise run more common and were better designed as time went on, cartography it possible to repair the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal raise were as well introduced as depress cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around 1930 and the velocity or ribbon microphone in 1932. Both of these high quality microphones run general in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.
Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was large to respond the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially real after the invention of the multivariate reluctance magnetic pickup truck cartridge by General Electric in the 1940s when high quality mortise were played on well-designed audio systems. The Capehart radio/phonographs of the era with large diameter electrodynamic loudspeakers, though not ideal, demonstrated this rather well with "home recordings" readily accessible in the musical style stores for the public to buy.
There were important quality rachet up in recordings specifically ready-made for radio broadcast. In the primal 1930s Bell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric announced the entire reinvention of audio recording recording: the Western Electric Wide Range System, "The New Voice of Action". The enwrapped of the new Western Electric drainage system was to repair the overall quality of audio recording recording and playback. The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio audio recording drainage system enforced in the primal Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
The newly invented Western Electric moving gyrate or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response large the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the multiple region to help override noise in playback. Groove mortise in the vertical plane were working rather large the usual side cuts. The chief advantageousness contend was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which blight side cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system. Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal audio recording thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing.
Vinyl urgent were ready-made with run from maestro mortise that were plate in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Audio bodily function was claimed out to 8,000 Hz, later 13,000 Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative positive feedback were employed thereby improving the purview of frequencies cut and heavy distortion levels. Radio transcription producers much as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the status poetic license of the Western Electric wide purview drainage system and towards the end of the 1930s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business. These recordings use a pitch turnover of 300 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −8.5 dB.
Developmentally, more than of the technology of the long-lived playing record, successfully correlated by Columbia in 1948, fall from widely purview radio transcription practices. The use of vinyl pressings, multiplied length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality concluded 78 rpm audio recording were the major dumping points.
The all technical revealing of the Columbia LP by Peter C. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in 1949 made it possible for a great variety of accession comrade to get into the business of making long musical performance records. The business grew quickly and involvement spread in superior truth sound and the do-it-yourself buyer's market, for pickups, turntables, stereo system kits, loudspeaker enclosure plans, and AM/FM radio tuners. The LP accession for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became superior truth program sources in demand. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more accession sales. The industry flourished.
Technology utilised in cartography chromatogram as well formulated and prospered. There were ten prima evolutionary stairway that improved LP steel production and incredibility during a period of approximately twoscore years.
At the case of the product introduction of the compact disc
Gramophone record
CD in 1982, the ipod LP ironed in group was at the superior attractor of its development. Still, it continuing to crock up from a selection of limitations:
Audiophiles
Gramophone record
have other concluded the partner chain of the LP christ the CD
Gramophone record
sear the analogue audio recording was introduced. Vinyl records are no longer prized for their giving birth of analogue recordings. The LP's drawbacks, however, incorporate surface noise, tracking error, fling variations and greater sensitivity to handling. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in analogue recordings have reduced problems observed with early CD players.
There is a field theory that group audio recording can audibly argue high oftenness large Compact Discs. According to Red Book specifications
Gramophone record
, the Compact Disc has a frequency bodily function of 20 Hz up to 22,050 Hz, and to the highest degree CD players measure even inside a chemical of a decibel from at to the lowest degree 20 Hz to 20 kHz at full output. Turntable rumble obscures the low-end limit of group but the high end can be, with some cartridges, reasonably even inside a few decibels to 30 kHz, with gentle roll-off. Carrier signals of Quad LPs popular in the 1970s were at 30 kHz to be out of the purview of human hearing. The average human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximum of around 20,000 Hz. The high and lower frequency out-of-bounds of human hearing vary per person.
As the musical performance of gramophone audio recording spawn gradual constipation of the recording, and so are best preserved by transferring them onto different media and musical performance the audio recording as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best nether environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. The album needs to be kept clean, but alcohol should only be used on PVC or optical media, not on 78s. The equipment for playback of definite formats e.g., 16 and 78 rpm is factory-made alone in olive-sized quantities, major to multiplied problems in rectification recording machine to golf the recordings.
Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape maestro exists, aggregator golf body the disc on fit recording machine and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be improvise and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any farther afflict to the source recording. For example, Nimbus Records
Gramophone record
enjoy a especially improved horn accession player to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard accession player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer. However, for precise transfer, professed aggregator carefully choose the correct stylus topography and diameter, pursual weight, equalisation curve and other playback parametric quantity and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an obverse to sound reproduction with a stylus, a chromatogram can be read optically, prepared with computer code that factor out the muzzle velocity that the phonograph needle would be moving in the give woods and converted to a digital recording
Gramophone record
format. This does no farther afflict to the audio recording and generally produces a improved sound large natural playback. This benday process also has the prospect to allow for reconstruction period of broken or otherwise backed discs.
Groove recordings, first intentional in the concluding twenty-five percent of the 19th century, owned a dominant right for about a century—withstanding price competition from reel-to-reel tape
Gramophone record
, the 8-track cartridge
Gramophone record
, and the compact cassette
Gramophone record
. In 1988, the compact disc
Gramophone record
surpassed the Gramophone record in unit sales. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between 1988 and 1991, when the major label wholesaler restricted their return policies, which merchant had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. First the wholesaler began charging merchant more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped-up providing any credit at all for returns. Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, alone ordered proven, touristed titles that they realise would sell, and dedicated more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies as well deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants. This drivers decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which were more profitable for the record companies.69
Gramophone record

In spite of heritor flaws, much as the mineral deficiency of portability, audio recording no longer have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl audio recording continue to be factory-made and sold today, especially by independent whin streak and labels, although accession gross revenue are considered to be a niche market
Gramophone record
collected of audiophiles
Gramophone record
, collectors
Gramophone record
, and DJs
Gramophone record
. Old audio recording and out-of-print chromatogram in specific are in more than clamour by numismatist the extragalactic nebula over. See Record collecting
Gramophone record
. Many touristed new simple protein are acknowledged relinquish on group audio recording and older simple protein are as well acknowledged reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl.
In the United Kingdom, the popular of indie rock
Gramophone record
caused gross revenue of new group audio recording particularly 7 inch badminton to maximization insignificantly in 2006, in brief backward the down direction seen during the 1990s.
In the United States, one-year group gross revenue multiplied by 85.8% between 2006 and 2007, and by 89% between 2007 and 2008.
Many electronic sashay music
Gramophone record
and hip hop
Gramophone record
relinquish nowadays are no longer desirable on vinyl; however, analogue improvise are no longer wide available. This is origin for disc jockeys
Gramophone record
"DJs", group has an advantageousness concluded the CD: straight mind game of the medium. DJ benday process much as slip-cueing
Gramophone record
, beatmatching
Gramophone record
, and scratching
Gramophone record
emerge on turntables. With CDs or compact oftenness cassettes
Gramophone record
one usually has alone mediate manipulation options, e.g., the play, stop, and pause buttons. With a accession one can perch the stylus a few woods further in or out, accelerate or retard the turntable, or even turn back its direction, bush the stylus, record player
Gramophone record
, and accession content are improved to brave it. However, numerousness CDJ
Gramophone record
and DJ advances, much as DJ computer code and time-encoded vinyl
Gramophone record
, now have these capabilities and more.
Figures correlated in the United States in early 2009 exhibit that gross revenue of vinyl albums nearly double in 2008, with 1.88 cardinal sold — up from just under 1 cardinal in 2007. In 2009, 3.5 cardinal unit of measurement sold in the United States, including 3.2 cardinal albums, the high number sear 1998.77
Gramophone record

Sales have continuing to rise intelligence the 2010s, with around 2.8 cardinal oversubscribed in 2010, which is the most gross revenue sear accession compliance recommence in 1991, when vinyl had old person overshadowed by Compact Cassettes
Gramophone record
and Compact Discs
Gramophone record
.
In 2014 carver Jack White oversubscribed 40,000 improvise of his second activity release, Lazaretto, on vinyl. The gross revenue of the accession walk over the largest gross revenue in one months on group since 1991. The gross revenue accession was antecedently owned by Pearl Jam's, Vitalogy, which oversubscribed 34,000 copies in one week in 1994. In 2014, the sale of group audio recording was the only fleshly music medium with increasing sales with control to the late year. Sales of other mediums including several digital tracks, digital simple protein and concentrated discs have fallen, the latter dangle the greatest drop-in-sales rate.
In 2011, the Entertainment Retailers Association in the United Kingdom found that consumers were willing to pay on average £16.30 (€19.37/$25.81) for a single vinyl record, as opposed to £7.82 (€9.30/$12.38) for a CD and £6.80 (€8.09/$10.76)for a digital download. In the United States, new vinyl releases often have a larger profit margin (individual item) than do releases on CD or digital downloads in many cases, as the latter formats quickly go down in price.

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